La importancia de reivindicar a María Zambrano

La importancia de reivindicar a María Zambrano

Hoy se celebra el aniversario del fallecimiento de una de las intelectuales españolas más relevantes del siglo XX.
6 febrero, 2019
Laura M. Coronel
  • Cultura

La importancia de reivindicar a María Zambrano

Laura M. Coronel
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Hay figuras que son más reconocidas que conocidas. Es el caso de María Zambrano. Decenas de bibliotecas, centros culturales o calles honran su memoria en nuestra ciudad. Y sin embargo, la inmensa mayoría de quienes han pasado horas buceando entre apuntes en la biblioteca María Zambrano o tomando cervezas en la calle homónima desconocen las aportaciones filosóficas con las que esta malagueña engrandeció la cultura española del pasado siglo.

La figura de María Zambrano es más reconocida que conocida fundamentalmente porque, durante la mayor parte de su vida, su verdadera patria fue el exilio. Nacida en Vélez-Málaga en 1904, desde pequeña mostró una sensibilidad intelectual respaldada por sus padres, que eran maestros de escuela. Por eso no dudó en cursar los estudios de bachillerato a pesar de que ella y otra joven eran las únicas mujeres en una clase copada por hombres. Y por eso a los 20 años se atrevió a matricularse en la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Madrid, todo un desafío en una época en la que el ambiente intelectual mostraba una hostilidad manifiesta hacia las mujeres que se atrevían a alzar la voz en nombre de la otra media mitad de la humanidad.

María con Ortega y Gasset. Foto: Fundación María Zambrano.
María con Ortega y Gasset. Foto: Fundación María Zambrano.

Y sin embargo, la agudeza y lucidez de María deslumbraron a Ortega y Gasset, de quien fue discípula. Pronto empezó a colaborar en periódicos madrileños y a ascender en la universidad. Pero su prometedora carrera se vio truncada por un acontecimiento que marcaría el curso de su vida: el estallido de la Guerra Civil.

Movida por sus profundas convicciones cívicas y políticas, María se opuso firmemente al golpe de Estado franquista. Fueron años de intensa efervescencia política e intelectual en los que llevó las misiones pedagógicas de la República para acercar el cine y la lectura a rincones como Huesca, Cáceres y Cuenca. Tuvo que abandonar la península cuando su marido fue destinado a la embajada de Chile, en 1936. Un año después, cuando todos los pronósticos anunciaban la victoria franquista, ambos regresaron a España. Les preguntaron el porqué de su regreso, ya que iban a perder la guerra. “Por eso”, cuentan las crónicas que respondieron.

«Un filósofo es el hombre en quien la intimidad se eleva a categoría racional; sus conflictos sentimentales, su encuentro con el mundo, se resuelven y se transforman en una teoría»

En el último año de contienda, la actividad de resistencia de María Zambrano se intensificó todavía más. Defendió el Consejo de Propaganda y el Consejo Nacional de la Infancia Evacuada y dirigió ‘Hora de España’, la revista editada por los intelectuales fieles a la República. Pero en enero de 1939 sus pasos la condujeron al exilio acompañada por su madre y su hermana.

Tras pasar por ciudades como París, Nueva York o La Habana se instala en México, donde imparte clases de Filosofía en la Universidad de San Nicolás de Hidalgo de Morelia. En ese mismo año, y marcada por el exilio, comienza un periodo de intensa actividad literaria publica «Pensamiento y poesía en la vida española» y «Filosofía y poesía»En mayo de 1953 se instala en Roma, donde escribe algunas de sus obras más importantes, como «El hombre y lo divino», «Los sueños y el tiempo» y «Persona y democracia». Allí conoce y establece relación con Elena Croce y Victoria Guerrini y con otros españoles al igual que ella exiliados como Ramón Gaya, Rafael Alberti o Jorge Guillén.

María en Ponte Vechio. Foto: Fundación María Zambrano.
María en Ponte Vechio. Foto: Fundación María Zambrano.

Gracias al artículo de José Luis López Aranguren tituladoLos sueños de María Zambrano”, comienza su reconocimiento en España, otorgándole distinciones como el Premio Príncipe de Asturias y es nombrada doctora honoris causa por la Universidad de Málaga. Una vez en España, se dedica a la reedición de algunas obras ya publicadas y a la escritura de multitud de artículos. Y en 1988 su reconocimiento llega a lo más alto al otorgarle el Premio Miguel de Cervantes de Literatura.

» Democracia es la sociedad en la cual no sólo es permitido, sino exigido, el ser persona»

Desde 1983 la salud de María decae, con artrosis, sin visión en ambos ojos y padeciendo anemia, pero todo esto no la detuvo para continuar su actividad. Comenzó a preparar la publicación de «Notas de un método» y la reedición de «Filosofía y Poesía», «La agonía de Europa» o «Persona y democracia», entre otros, e incluso en sus últimos días aún pudo dictar algunos artículos y recomponer otros inéditos de épocas anteriores, hasta que finalmente en 1991 fallece. En la lápida, por deseo suyo, está inscrita la leyenda del Cantar de los Cantares: Surge amica mea et veni («Levántate, amiga mía, y ven»).

Como hemos podido comprobar, la obra de María Zambrano es muy extensa y de lo más variada. No siguió los pasos de la filosofía occidental, sino que durante toda su vida trató de reclamar la recuperación de la tan rica diversidad de géneros literarios existentes. Actualmente es de gran inspiración para muchos autores que desean homenajear o encumbrar a esta gran mujer, a una de las principales figuras del pensamiento español del siglo pasado, a una innovadora al defender la necesidad de lo poético en toda indagación filosófica y a la primera mujer en recibir un Premio Cervantes.

 


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