La primera mujer que ingresó en la RAE

La primera mujer que ingresó en la RAE

El 9 de febrero de 1978 Carmen Conde se convierte en la primera mujer en la Historia en ingresar a la Real Academia Española
9 febrero, 2019
Laura M. Coronel
  • Cultura

La primera mujer que ingresó en la RAE

Laura M. Coronel
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Hoy se cumplen 41 años de la entrada de la primera mujer a la Real Academia Española trescientos años después de su fundación. Estamos hablando de Carmen Conde, poeta, dramaturga y maestra española. Pero en muchas ocasiones se la recuerda meramente por este hecho y no por su amplia trayectoria profesional.

Sus primeros años

Nació en 1907 en Cartagena, pero a los seis años se trasladó a Melilla hasta 1920. Cuando tenía 19 años comenzó magisterio en la Escuela normal de Maestras de Murcia, y en 1924 publicó su primer trabajo en un diario de Cartagena, colaborando posteriormente con otros periódicos y revistas.

En 1927, conoció al poeta Antonio Oliver y formalizaron sus relaciones y dos años más tarde publicó ‘Brocal’, un conjunto de poemas en prosa cuya temática se centraba en el amor. Ese mismo año terminó sus estudios de Magisterio y contrajeron matrimonio.

En 1933 fundaron la revista Presencia, un órgano de la Universidad Popular en la que había un cine educativo donde se celebraban conferencias en las que invitaban a poetas de renombre como Ramón SijéMargarita Nelken o Miguel Hernández, que se convirtió en íntimo amigo de la pareja. Ese mismo añi se trasladó a Madrid y sufrió un acontecimiento que marcaría su obra poética en adelante: el fallecimiento de su única hija al nacer.

Su relación con Amanda Junquera

Amanda Junquera y Carmen Conde. Foto: Pinterest
Amanda Junquera y Carmen Conde. Foto: Pinterest

En 1936 estudiaba en la Universidad de Valencia y conoció a Amanda Junquera, que era esposa  de Cayetano Alcázar Molina, catedrático de Historia Española. Y muchos aseguran que esa amistad pasó a convertirse en una relación amorosa. Uno de ellos fue José Luis Ferris, quien dio más detalles sobre ellas en la biografía ‘Carmen Conde: vida pasión y verso de una escritora olvidada’. Asegura que la poesía de Carmen a partir de esa relación era muy apasionada, espectacular y brillante, una pasión de enamorada cuyo objeto de amor era Amanda. «No es que llevase una vida secreta, es que no podía airearla por las circunstancias de la España que le tocó vivir y de la sociedad de entonces», comenta José Luis Ferris.

Esta relación es vista por muchos como una lucha interior de lo que verdaderamente quería y sentía Conde, y lo que podía mostrar en el exterior; una lucha entre la realidad y el deseo ante un mundo que no le dejaba ser ella misma. Fueron muchas las dedicatorias que le escribió a Amanda desde el mismo año en el que se conocieron, y tras su análisis dejan claro como pasó de una admiración inicial absoluta a una relación más intensa y especial.

Al estallar la Guerra Civil, Oliver se unió al ejército republicano y fue un periodo de inmensa felicidad para ella al poder disfrutar de su otra relación, periodo que le inspiraría para escribir obras como Mujer sin edén’, Mientras los hombres mueren’ ‘Ansia de la gracia’ (cuyo tema central es el erotismo, siendo una de las pioneras en abordarlo por aquella época).

Ocupando el sillón «K»

A sus 72 años y con una larga trayectoria como escritora, fue propuesta como candidata como académica de la RAE en 1978. Tras el rechazo de los académicos a María Moliner en 1972, todos tenían claro que ya tocaba una mujer y de las candidatas eran Rosa Chacel, Carmen Guirado y ella.

Finalmente tomó posesión de su sillón en la Real Academia. Este «sitio» había sido negado a otras grandes escritoras como Blanca de los Ríos o María Moliner por el simple hecho de ser mujeres, y Conde aprovechó el momento para dedicarles unas palabras: «Permítanme que manifieste mi homenaje de admiración y respeto a sus obras, vuestra noble decisión pone fin a una, tan injusta como vetusta, discriminación literaria». Tras su fallecimiento otra mujer ocupó su sillón en 1988, Ana María Matute, cuyo lema es: ‘Limpia, fija y da esplendor’.

Carmen Conde, entre Gonzalo Torrente Ballester y Manuel Terán.
Carmen Conde, entre Gonzalo Torrente Ballester y Manuel Terán.

Sigue sorprendiendo a día de hoy que de 46 académicos, tan solo 8 sean mujeres (Carmen Iglesias (2002), Margarita Salas (2003), Soledad Puértolas (2010),  Inés Fernández-Ordóñez (2011),  Carme Riera (2013), Aurora Egido (2014) Clara Janés (2016) y Paz Battaner (2017)). La RAE asegura tener «una especial sensibilidad hacia el machismo en todas sus manifestaciones», aunque para muchos desprende una curiosa misoginia.


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