La jubilación de los políticos te sube el precio de la luz

La jubilación de los políticos te sube el precio de la luz

Ministros y presidentes recalaron en empresas privadas tras abandonar la política. El sector energético ha sido el principal foco de las puertas giratorias.
13 diciembre, 2018
Luis Casal
Felipe González, Ángel Acebes y José María Aznar. Foto: La Mirada Común.
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La jubilación de los políticos te sube el precio de la luz

Luis Casal
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Que en España hay puertas giratorias no debería sorprender a nadie. Los conflictos de intereses que llevan a las más altas esferas de la política a desempeñar funciones en empresas privadas han afectado en el caso español a 13 mandatarios de la cúpula política estatal, entre ellos dos expresidentes y siete exministros del Gobierno. Esta práctica, como se ha denunciado históricamente, crea un terreno fértil para la corrupción y el tráfico de influencias entre el sector privado y el público. Todo esto se traduce en lo más obvio: en tus impuestos.

Si pensamos en las principales empresas españolas de gas y petróleo el problema se vuelve patente, ya que gran parte de sus negocios se basan en la infraestructura del Estado y la adjudicación de contratos públicos. El clientelismo entre las cúpulas gubernamentales y empresariales tiene un efecto directo en la ciudadanía, ya que los lazos y tratos de favor podrían presionar a los gobiernos para garantizar que las leyes y regulaciones se vuelvan favorables a los intereses de las empresas, no de los ciudadanos.

De los 176 ministros de la democracia (2018), 71 han fichado por grandes empresas del sector privado.

En el año 2016 había un total de 58 exministros y altos funcionarios del Estado ocupando cargos como directores o miembros de consejos de administración de empresas del Ibex 35. En datos totales la situación no mejora: 71 de los 176 ministros que ha habido en democracia (hasta esta legislatura) se mudaron a grandes empresas después de dejar sus sillones en el Congreso, principalmente como directores de firmas como Gas Natural, Endesa y Repsol YPF. Los 58 que siguen en activo cobran anualmente más de 18 millones de euros por sus cargos en el sector privado.

A pesar de que en marzo de 2015 se actualizó la ley para evitar que los funcionarios superiores no pudieran dedicarse al sector privado en un periodo de mínimo dos años, la nueva normativa no ha impedido los trasvases de puertas giratorias. Según el último informe del Grupo Verde del Parlamento Europeo, desde que se actualizó la Ley 3/2015 hasta otoño de 2017 hubo un total de 137 altos cargos políticos que recibieron permiso para trasladarse a las grandes empresas, a menudo sin un período de espera: a veces, la mudanza fue casi instantánea.

Los nombres

De todos los altos cargos que ficharon por el sector privado, Endesa es la entidad que más políticos de primer nivel ha acogido. La empresa de servicios públicos más grande de España ha ido nombrando sistemáticamente a las más altas instancias del Estado para enriquecer sus consejos de administración, entre los que han figurado eminentes como la exministra Elena Salgado (PSOE) y su predecesor Pedro Solbes (PSOE), que se integró en los despachos de Enel, matriz de Endesa. A su cola se sitúa el último ministro de Economía, Luis de Guindos (PP), que compaginó su cargo público con su sillón en la junta de la eléctrica. Cierra la lista el expresidente del Gobierno José María Aznar (PP), que fue nombrado asesor externo años después de supervisar la privatización de la compañía.

Otra de las entidades con las puertas más rápidas es la tercera empresa de servicios públicos de España, Gas Natural Fenosa. En su seno han recalado varios políticos de primer nivel –todos ocupando un alto cargo- como la exministra Cristina Garmendia (PSOE) o el expresidente del PNV y exconsejero vasco Josu Jon Imaz, miembro del consejo de administración de Gas Natural como representante de la compañía petrolera Repsol, de la que es uno de los principales accionistas. Les sigue otro expresidente, pero del Gobierno: Felipe González (PSOE) ganó más de medio millón de euros como miembro del –sorpresa- consejo de administración.

Aznar fichó por Endesa en 2011, años después de promover su privatización.

Otro notable de las puertas giratorias es el exministro Ángel Acebes (PP), que recaló en el consejo de administración de Iberdrola tres meses antes de su imputación en el Caso Bankia. A su lado estaba el expresidente del Congreso Manuel Marín (PSOE) y, unos escalafones más abajo, se encontraba Ignacio López de Hierro -Iberinco-, marido de la exministra María Dolores de Cospedal (PP).

Este último también está relacionado con Red Eléctrica de España, compañía que en los últimos años se ha dedicado a dos labores principales: la transmisión de electricidad y el fichaje de expolíticos. Cinco de sus doce miembros de la Junta Directiva han tenido carreras políticas antes de recalar en la privada, aunque los más notorios son los exsecretarios de Estado José Folgado (PP) y Agustín Conde (PP), el exministro Luis Atienza (PSOE) y el ex director general de la Guardia Civil Arsenio Fernández de Mesa (PP).

Impacto en la política climática y energética

El efecto directo de las puertas giratorias en la ciudadanía se ve en casos como el del mercado eléctrico, en el que los gobiernos sucesivos han beneficiado considerablemente a las empresas poseedoras de centrales nucleares y combustibles fósiles del país -donde recalan los políticos-, dañando la producción de energías renovables. No hablemos ya de los recortes en subsidios, de los impuestos retroactivos o de las tasas de remuneración, que entre 2008 y 2012 agravaron la pobreza de combustible y aumentaron los precios al consumidor en promedio de 9,9% por año.

Se reducían los subsidios a las energías renovables mientras se mantenían para los combustibles fósiles. En paralelo, los gobiernos rescataron a las antiguas centrales eléctricas de carbón y gas con subsidios se entre 470 y casi 1.000 millones de euros anuales mientras se vendía el discurso de la “autogeneración” de electricidad. Al final, el patrón general es claro: se recortó en energías renovables para favorecer al Ibex 35 con conexiones políticas. El efecto lo vivimos hoy en día, con una transición retrasada de los combustibles fósiles, que daña el clima, y ​​un sistema menos justo que contribuye a la pobreza energética y de combustibles.


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