Sobrecostes e incumplimientos de contratos: la historia de los hospitales privatizados de Aguirre

Sobrecostes e incumplimientos de contratos: la historia de los hospitales privatizados de Aguirre

El Dictamen de la Comisión de Endeudamiento de la Asamblea detalla la implantación de "un modelo de contrato pensado en la obtención de beneficios privados contrarios al interés público" por parte del Gobierno de Esperanza Aguirre
19 febrero, 2019
Arturo Tena
Esperanza Aguirre visita las obras del nuevo hospital público de Collado Villalba junto a Javier Fernández-Lasquetty (a su izquierda), 22 de mayo de 2012. Foto: Flickr.
  • Sanidad

Sobrecostes e incumplimientos de contratos: la historia de los hospitales privatizados de Aguirre

Arturo Tena
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Año 2003. Esperanza Aguirre aterriza en el Gobierno de la Comunidad de Madrid tras las elecciones y el famoso «tamayazo». En su programa electoral, lleno de grandes cifras, una de sus promesas más llamativas es el compromiso de construir siete nuevos hospitales en la región. Aguirre se compromete a terminar el Puerta de Hierro, y construir otros seis en Vallecas, Alcobendas, Aranjuez, Arganda, Parla y el corredor del Henares.

El nuevo Consejero de Sanidad, Manuel Lamela, encarga una hoja de ruta para cumplir esta promesa: el plan de infraestructuras sanitarias 2004-2007.  De su diseño y ejecución se encargan principalmente Elena de Mingo, Directora General de la Red única de salud pública, y su mano derecha, Arturo Canalda -imputado en el caso Lezo-. Los dos se inspiran en el Private Finance Investment (PFI), un modelo de privatización muy utilizado en Estados Unidos y Reino Unido. 

El modelo Lamela, hacia la privatización total

El plan de infraestructuras de la Comunidad efectivamente prevé un importante cambio en el modelo de gestión de los recursos públicos que se había llevado hasta ese momento. Se establece una nueva colaboración público-privada que concede obra pública a emprsas privadas, que se encargan tanto de la construcción como de la gestión de los servicios no sanitarios. Una importante modificación de la titularidad de los servicios y los contratos, ahora externalizados.

Durante tres años, se desarrolla un modelo que iría a «optimizar» los recursos, aseguran desde la Comunidad. En febrero de 2008, se abren los nuevos hospitales externalizados de Aguirre. El plan de Lamela se materiliza y se expande cuatro años más hasta las eleciones municipales y autonómicas de 2011. En ese tiempo, se construyen cuatro nuevos hospitales (Torrejón, Mósteles, Collado Villalba, Carabanchel) con la misma base, esta vez con Juan José Güemes al frente de la Consejería de Sanidad.

En 2012, el Gobierno, ya liderado por Ignacio Gonzáez, da un paso más: aprueba la privatización también de los servicio sanitarios en seis hospitales, varios de los cuales eran los que habían construido en la década anterior, y en otros tantos centros de salud. Javier Fernández-Lasquetty, el siguiente Consejero, aseguraba que se ahorrarían 169 millones de euros y mejorarían los servicios. Pero el Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Madrid (TSJM) lo frena en 2014. Y, de repente, todo se trunca: González da marcha atrás y paraliza el proceso de privatización. Estalla la trama Púnica; acaba el Gobierno de Gonzáez; llegan las elecciones autonómicas con una flamante nueva candidata, Cristina Cifuentes.

La Púnica y la Comisión de Endeudamiento

Lo ocurrido en aquella época con la Sanidad pública empieza a emerger en 2017, cuando se conoce que la Unidad Central Operativa (UCO) de la Guardia Civil está investigando la vinculación de la Púnica con los gastos publicitarios de los siete nuevos hospitales de Aguirre del plan de infraestructuras 2004-2007. Lo que está investigando la Guardia Civil son el destilo de 22,8 millones de euros que se gastaron en vídeos promocionales, actos o objetos de marketing durante aquella época.

Ahora, se ha determinado todavía más que ocurrió con el dinero público en la Sanidad madrileña durante esos años. La Comisión sobre el endeudamiento de la Comunidad de Madrid en la Asamblea ha investigado, con distintas comparecencias y estudio de documentación, la serie de actuaciones que se llevaron a cabo en ese proceso de externalización en la época de Aguirre.

Se implantó «un modelo de contrato pensado en la obtención de beneficios privados contrarios al interés público»

El Dictamen de la Comisión certiifica una serie de sobrecostes, incumplimientos de contratos y opacidades en la gestión de la Comunidad que, diez años después, han significado «un crecimiento exponencial de la deuda y la implantación de un modelo de contrato pensado en la obtención de beneficios privados contrarios al interés público».

¿Qué ocurrió? La Comisión detalla una serie de puntos por los cuáles consideran que el Gobierno de Aguirre favoreció a las empresas concesionarias y perjudicó a sabiendas las arcas públicas. Primero, no se hicieron «informes técnicos ni estudios que avalaran el cambio de modelo«. Lamela, de Mingo y Canalda pusieron en marcha el plan sin saber qué tipo de viabilidad ni estaba basado en necesidades sanitarias. Según el Dictamen, se buscaba «la rentabilidad política a corto plazo y ampliar las perspectivas de negocio de las constructoras y abrir la puerta a un modelo privatizable».

Después, los contratos firmados con estas empresas habrían sido «abusivos» por las distintas cláusulas que se habían incluido en ellos, con distintos pagos por provisión de servicio o explotación, y, además, un canon -o Cantidad Máxima Anual (CMA)- para la amortización de la construcción.

La Comisión determina que este canon era ópaco, demostrado porque cada hospital lo calculaba de forma diferente. La Comisión revela que este precio fijo que tiene que pagar la Administración ha aumentado un 47% desde 2008 hasta los últimos Presupuestos el año pasado. Es decir, que estas empresas «reciben una sobre-retribución que para la Administración es un sobrecoste». Este incremento se debería sobre todo a la ejecución de los modificados del contrato inicial.

Estos modificados, apunta el Dictamen, podrían ser nulos por la manera de aprobarlos. Se hicieron acuerdos en el Consejo de Gobierno, pero no se llevaron a cabo trámites fundamentales como el informe de fiscalización de la Intervención General, se omitieron procedimientos de contratación obligatorios por ley y tampoco constan certificados de obra en los que se detalla a qué iba cada gasto en las obras ejecutadas.

Favores e irregularidades de las empresas concesionarias

La Comisión no se queda ahí en señalar los tratos de favor y las irregularidades de las empresas concesionarias. Explica cómo las cláusulas de los contratos que fueron utilizadas para obtener mayor beneficio económico de forma indebida, las ventas de activos a fondos de inversión o su vinculación, antes o después, en alguna de las tramas de corrupción vinculadas al Partido Popular.

Tras describir la serie de vínculos que hicieron malgastar millones de euros en la privatización de la sanidad madrileña, el documento termina haciendo una serie de recomendaciones. La Comisión ve necesaria «la revisión de los contratos de concesión de los hospitales y en su caso la renegociación del mismo en defensa del interés público» y «esclarecer si se han producido responsabilidades penales y contables entre los responsables».


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