Podemos pone en el punto de mira la Ley de Amnistía para juzgar los crímenes del franquismo

Podemos pone en el punto de mira la Ley de Amnistía para juzgar los crímenes del franquismo

La formación morada propone modificar la Ley de Amnistía para poder juzgar los hechos de la dictadura y devolver los bienes expoliados por Franco
4 abril, 2019
Luis Casal
El secretario general de Podemos, Pablo Iglesias, en la plaza del Reina Sofía.
  • Memoria Histórica

Podemos pone en el punto de mira la Ley de Amnistía para juzgar los crímenes del franquismo

Luis Casal
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Unidas Podemos ha anunciado este jueves que, en caso de ganar las elecciones generales del 28 de abril, su formación modificará la Ley de Amnistía para que puedan «juzgarse los crímenes de lesa humanidad del fascismo». Derogar esta ley, interpuesta durante la Transición como un parche más para evitar «reabrir heridas», anularía los juicios del franquismo y declararía como nulas todas las condenas dictadas durante la Guerra Civil y la dictadura que tuviesen motivos políticos, ideológicos, de identidad u orientación sexual y de expresión de género.

La Ley de Amnistía ha sido siempre un objeto de debate en la sociedad española, especialmente en la izquierda, pero nunca ha llegado a tocarse. Su propio fundamento -eliminar efectos jurídicos que pudieran hacer peligrar el nuevo régimen- la enfrenta directamente con el Derecho Internacional, pues impide a España juzgar los delitos cometidos durante el franquismo, considerados imprescriptibles. Este hecho ha enfrentado al Gobierno con organismos como la ONU, Humans Right Watch o Amnistía Internacional.

«El régimen franquista operó también como un mecanismo de saqueo y expolio hacia familias de la jerarquía»

En lo que respecta a Unidas Podemos, la formación morada señala que anulando la ley pretenden hacer justicia a la memoria democrática, recalcando que también le retirarían las medallas a Antonio González Pacheco, alias ‘Billy el Niño’, y a otros «torturadores del franquismo». Al mismo tiempo, añaden que promoverán una auditoría de los bienes expoliados durante el franquismo «para devolverlos a sus legítimos titulares»: uno de los últimos que ha saltado al debate público ha sido el de las dos estatuas de la Catedral de Santiago -Isaac y Abraham- que los Franco arrebataron del patrimonio público para lucirlas en sus salones. Siguiendo con el caso de Galicia, la batalla legal para desmontar la riqueza expoliada ya ha comenzado para lograr la devolución de otras propiedades, entre ellas el conocido Pazo de Meirás.

«Hay que señalar que el régimen franquista no solo fue una maquinaria autoritaria diseñada para la represión, sino que operó también como un mecanismo de saqueo y expolio hacia familias de la jerarquía franquista. Una de las claves en la reparación es hacer una auditoría de los bienes expoliados y devolverlos a sus legítimos titulares», explican desde Unidas Podemos. El partido insiste en que España es a día de hoy una excepcionalidad europea «en términos de impunidad», ya que la memoria histórica no ha llegado a intervenir en la herencia de la dictadura a favor «de los derechos humanos».

La derecha y la memoria histórica

La otra cara de la moneda es la esgrimida por la derecha española, que -lejos de rebelarse contra la Ley de Amnistía– ha centrado sus esfuerzos en desbaratar la Ley de Memoria HistóricaEsta petición cuenta con los apoyos del tejido asociativo más conservador de España, como la Plataforma 2003 -relacionada con la Falange-, Vox o la Fundación Francisco Franco, que llevan tiempo reclamando el fin de una ley que, aseguran, «divide a los españoles según su pasado».

En realidad, mientras que los hijos de republicanos tuvieron que volver a España en democracia o malvivir durante la dictadura, los altos cargos del franquismo se cobijaron en los consejos de administración de Endesa, La Caixa, Telefónica, Iberdrola o directamente en el Congreso de los Diputados. También en el ámbito judicial: 10 de los 16 jueces del Tribunal de Orden Público franquista ascendieron al Tribunal Supremo o la Audiencia Nacional.

«Nuestra Cruzada es la única lucha en la que los ricos que fueron a la guerra salieron más ricos”.

El propio Francisco Franco aflojó las cuentas públicas para vaciar la riqueza nacional en su propia figura y la de sus allegados. La corrupción sistémica del régimen -con sus consecuencias en la desigualdad- se evidencia en las palabras que pronunció el dictador en 1942, durante un discurso en Lugo: “Nuestra Cruzada es la única lucha en la que los ricos que fueron a la guerra salieron más ricos”. La historia de España durante el siglo XX es también la historia del enriquecimiento de algunos a costa del empobrecimiento de otros, y la ley es la única que limita su influencia.

Ya que estas situaciones lograron pasar como normales a lo largo de la Transición, los clientelismos franquistas no lo tuvieron difícil para transmitirse a otros sectores de la recién formada democracia. La Ley de Memoria Histórica ha sido uno de los diques de contención de las desigualdades del régimen: entre muchos otros preceptos, el ordenamiento pide “reconocer y ampliar los derechos” en favor de quienes padecieron «persecución o violencia» durante la Guerra Civil y la dictadura. Cuando Vox -y el PP- pide “homenajear conjuntamente a todos los que lucharon por España” y borrar la memoria histórica, en realidad está pidiendo que se eliminen las concesiones a los represaliados y se mantenga la hegemonía franquista amparada por la Ley de Amnistía.


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